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2010 WASSCE (November) Social Studies Paper Two – Essay
1. (a) What is political independence?
(b) Identify four challenges associated with political independence.
a. Political independence is gaining self-rule from colonial masters thus making the new nation govern itself.
It is the freedom that a country gains from her colonial master to govern herself and have control over all her internal and external affairs.
b. The challenges associated with political independence are as follows:
i. How to ensure economic self-reliance: A politically independent nation first of all faces the challenge of attaining a level of economic self-reliance, thus, being able to produce most of its basic needs without much external help. If an independent nation is not self-reliant, it will be very difficult for her to govern herself since she may lack resources like capital or funds to carry internal projects. So a nation that is not self-reliant is essentially not politically independent since her colonial masters may still be controlling her affairs and act directly or indirectly as the colonial master demands. For example. Ghana cannot say confidently that she is politically independent because she still relies on foreign aid from Britain (her colonial master) and other foreign donor countries like Japan. U.S.A., France, etc. to undertake her development projects. After political independence, there is also the problem of managing the natural resources of the country. Ghana, for example, cannot process most of her raw materials like minerals, cocoa, timber, and citrus fruits (or add value to them) for export because her industries are not well developed to process them.
ii. How to manage political and ethnic conflicts: If a country is able to manage political and ethnic conflicts such a country is able to enjoy internal peace and development. Attaining political Independence and afterwards plunging the nation into conflict-war frenzy makes nonsense of the independence that has been attained. A nation like Ghana still faces this challenge since she has not been able to unite all the various ethnic groups and political groupings into a single unit hence we constantly hear of conflicts among tribes and political parties during and after elections. An example is the ethnic conflicts that have taken place in Bawku, Dagbon, etc. The government in an effort to solve the problem has brought the perpetrators before the law. With the overthrow of the Nkrumah regime, Ghana has experienced many military coups thereby affecting the economic development of the country. With the current political dispensation taking place in Ghana and with the 1992 Constitution coup makers will not be entertained in Ghana.
iii. How to generate funds internally for development: A politically independent nation like Ghana is faced with the challenge of generating funds from taxes, tolls, fines, etc. for economic development. A politically independent country like Ghana has few manufacturing industries from which taxes can be levied on goods produced locally for constructing roads, bridges, schools, hospitals, etc. Tolls levied on market places and on cars plying our roads are not enough for any meaningful economic development. Court fines and other fines are also small for economic development. However, increases in taxes, tolls and fines in a politically independent nation can cause political unrest, demonstrations since these increases have the tendency of increasing prices of goods and thus causing inflation. It is important that politically independent nation generate enough local funds or capital so as to minimize dependence on international aid to support the budget.
iv. How to reduce high rate of illiteracy: Apolitically independent nation has to think of how to reduce high rate of illiteracy and improve on the skills of the people. After independence a nation will find herself faced with a large majority of her population not attending school. This may be due to inadequate funds to establish schools and train teachers to teach the large number of children. Faced with lack of funds to set up schools and furnish them with equipment, textbooks and other learning materials as well as establish more teacher training colleges, the politically independent nation will have to fall on her colonial master for assistance. This cannot make a politically independent nation truly independent since she still relies on her colonial master for financial assistance to expand the existing schools and training colleges to accommodate the large number of children and train more teachers. Through Dr. Kwame Nkrumah’s Accelerated Educational Plan many new secondary schools and teacher training colleges were established to reduce the illiteracy rate in the country but after her overthrow other governments did not pursue his policy vigorously. So after political independence, we cannot say that the literacy rate has reduced.
v. How to develop its human resources through training and re-training: A politically independent nation may face the challenge of how to develop her human resources through training and re-training. Human resource of every nation can be improved through training. Through training provided by technical schools, vocational, universities, polytechnics, etc. one acquires knowledge, skills and attitude for a specific purpose or job. A politically independent nation may not have these facilities to realize her objective. The resources in terms of money and equipment to establish many training institutions to train the needed technical men and women the country needs may be absent. There is also the need for those already trained to go through periodic re-training to sharpen their skills in their chosen profession. A politically independent nation may lack the necessary funds to organize such re-training in the form of short courses at the universities, refresher courses, seminars, workshops, etc. for the country’s manpower on regular basis to enable them contribute effectively to national development.
vi. How to develop appropriate technology and improve on indigenous technology for development: A politically independent nation may inherit from her colonial master technology which may not be suitable for the country. For example, in Ghana the use of cement in construction has led to the degradation of our beaches and rural areas for sand. This colonial legacy has been a problem and the government is faced with the problem of developing burnt bricks which are cheaper and affordable in building. After independence, Ghana, for example, still uses cutlasses and hoes and animals in farming. All efforts at modernizing them have not been successful. We still import tractors, combine harvesters, planters for farming. The government is encouraging local engineers to come out with modern tools and equipment for farming, road construction and buiIding.
vii. How to ensure the adoption of positive work attitudes /ethics to improve upon productivity: After political independence people or workers still think that government work is for the white-man and therefore show apathy towards the work that they do. Many workers go to work late but close from work early than the normal time. Some go to work and use the working time reading the newspapers or working lotto or doing very little work and expect to be paid the days wage for the little work done. This poor attitude towards work reduces productivity since little work is done by the worker. It is necessary that after political independence workers change their perception with regard to the work that they do and adopt positive attitude towards work. A worker should be punctual, resourceful, and highly committed to his work to raise his level of productivity.
viii. How to generate employment to alleviate poverty: After political independence, a country may face the challenge of ensuring that the people get jobs to do. This will mean creating more job opportunities to alleviate the unemployment problem of the nation. However, many Ghanaians lack skills which can make them marketable hence they roam about the streets not getting jobs to do. Again, there are very few industries and companies in the country while the rural areas after independence still lack amenities like portable water, electricity, good schools, hospitals etc. to make the youth stay and farm. The government then faces the problem of making agriculture attractive to the youth in the rural areas since she cannot provide them with modern agricultural machines like tractors, combine harvesters, planters, etc. for provide farming. As the rural areas are modernized the youth will stay in the rural areas to farm and enter into other agro-allied industries such as palm fruit processing, gari processing, basket weaving, pottery, kente weaving etc. When the mass of the people are employed they will earn income and pay taxes which can be used for the development of the nation. Again, when more people are employed the income they receive will improve their standard of living as they can enjoy a wide variety of goods and services and the poverty level among the people will reduce.
ix. How to promote good governance to ensure political stability: Political instability is a disease which has plagued many African nations who have obtained independence. A nation which is faced political instability cannot develop. A stable and peaceful atmosphere is necessary for development in a politically independent nation. People’s fundamental human rights must be respected by all including the government. The rule of law must prevail whereby there should be equality before the laws of the land without any discrimination or favouritism because of one’s political background or affiliation. Absence of good governance in many politically independent nations has lead to repression and agitation from the masses for change in government. A comparison of Ghana to Malaysia who gained political independence about the same time really proves that political instability is really a disease in any independent nation. The Malaysian economy has by far advanced compared to Ghana which had a lot of coup d’etats.
x. How to ensure loyalty, selflessness and patriotism: In a politically independent nation the government is faced with the problem of ensuring that public offices are not offered on political and ethnic lines. However, after political independence, politicians have become selfish in the distribution of and appointment to political offices and ministerial positions. This leads to inefficiency because the right people are not appointed. Poor management practice is the order of the day. That is why many state corporations like the Railway Corporations, Ghana Airways and Tema Shipyard and Dry-dock have all collapsed. This is because the appointment of the Board of Directors and management is based on political affiliation or ethnic lines. The managers therefore become square pegs in round holes leading to bankruptcy of state enterprises. Patriotism involves extreme devotion of an individual to his country. However, in politically independent nation, that feeling of great pride and a great sense of oneness with one’s nation is absent. People are unwilling to show love or give loyal support and to make sacrifices for their nation. The government therefore finds it very difficult to bring the people together because of their ethnocentric feelings.
xi. How to ensure interdependence and gainful international co-operation without sacrificing the sovereignty of the nation: A politically independent nation cannot be self-reliant in all her needs and therefore needs foreign assistance. In seeking for aids from advanced countries, it must be evident that aids are not given free because they have strings attached and the strings may make a country dependent on foreign countries for their needs. Donor countries dictate in which way the aid should be utilized. Sometimes, the area where the loan will be used may not be the priority area of the nation. For example, Ghana’s co-operation with China which has led to Chinese aid in many projects in Ghana which has also led to the flooding of our market with cheap and fake Chinese textiles and a lot of fake drugs on our market. They also engage in excessive imitation of popular brands on the market. The flooding of our market with cheap Chinese textiles can invariably kick local textile competitors and industries out of competition.
2. a. Explain national identity.
b. Describe four cultural elements that bring people together in our country.
a. National identity is the behaviour or traits and ideas that are commonly shared by the people of the nation.
OR It is a phenomenon whereby an individual sees himself/herself as part of his/her nation and relates to the national symbols. It evolves positive psychic feeling towards the nation.
b. Cultural elements that bring the people together:
iii. Naming ceremony/Outdooring
v. Music and Dance
vi. Marriage ceremony
vii. Puberty rites
ix. Story telling
3. a. Outline four types of freedoms guaranteed under the 1992 Constitution of Ghana.
b. Discuss four problems which hinder nation building in Ghana.
a. Types of freedom
i. Freedom of speech and expression
ii. Freedom of belief thought and conscience
iii. Freedom of association
iv. Freedom of movement
v. Freedom of religion
b. The following are some of the problems which hinder nation building in Ghana:
i. Political instability is one of the problems which hinder nation building in Ghana. Since 1966 Ghana has witnessed four successful coup d’etats which took place in 1966, 1972, 1979 and 1981 and several abortive coups. The short span of life of Governments in Ghana has affected development of the country in the past. The violent changes of Governments have disrupted economic plans of the country and scared away foreign investors because of the political insecurity and economic instability.
ii. Indifference by some citizens (apathy): Nation building in Ghana has been hindered due to the way Ghanaians respond to people and government works. This is because Ghanaian contractors and workers tend to work haphazardly towards other people’s work and government work. This results in the use of inferior materials to undertake projects hence poor quality work which does last long. Also many people do not show the desire to take proper care of public property. Such behaviour is likely to lead to waste of tax payers money used to provide them. There are times when water gushes out of a broken pipe and the organization responsible for its repair and maintenance takes several days before going to repair it. This result in loss of revenue to the government as well waste of materials used to treat the water.
iii. Ethnocentrism / nepotism: Many people have emotional attachment to their ethnic group and tribe and therefore choose to see their language and their cultural practices as symbols of identity. As a result, people tend to employ prospective workers based on either ethnic background or tribe. They tend to employ inexperienced personnel to occupy certain positions which do not help nation building. If unqualified person is employed all because of favouritism and tribalism the result is poor quality work performed and this leads to low productivity. Again, people employ family members in firm and reject qualified people who are not relatives. Some also employ only party members and reject qualified opposition members which does not auger well for nation building.
iv. Unpopular policies by governments which stifle initiatives: The various governments after independence have pursued policies that have not been in the interest of Ghanaians. An example of such unpopular policies is the trade liberalization policy which allows foreign countries to dump their goods on the Ghanaian market. The Chinese, for example, brand themselves as Africa’s best friend and ally and on this basis flood our markets with cheap and inferior Chinese textiles, electronics, medicines etc. The flooding of our local market with such cheap and inferior goods invariably kicks local competitors and industries out of competition. The result is that Ghanaians patronize these foreign imports from China, Korea, Malaysia etc. at the expense of the local product because the prices of these imports are cheaper than the locally manufactured ones. The local entrepreneur is left with no choice than to fold up. This unpopular policy by the government, therefore, stifles initiatives of the local entrepreneur.
v. Corruption: Bribery and corruption at work places and management level are common practices that affect nation building. In most cases one often has to give out money for his work done otherwise the work is unnecessarily delayed. Sometimes an outright demand is made for a specific amount to have somebody else’s work done or put aside. This act of giving and receiving bribe is so much entrenched in the Ghanaian social fabric that work without an offer of bribe is not given the due attention it deserves. This has the effect of reducing the productivity of the business.
vi. Negative work attitudes/ethics: This is due to lack of self-interest and poor attitude to government property. Many workers have an erroneous belief that if they put in more effort the extra profit goes to benefit the government and not the workers. Many workers go to work late or gossip at work, or work lotto, or sleep during working hours. This behaviour leads to loss of time or loss of man hours of work and inability to achieve set targets. The result is lowering of labour productivity.
vii. Mismanagement of resources: Another factor, which affects nation buiIding, is the improper management of resources. Lack of administrative and entrepreneurial ability does not allow for the right type of tools and machinery to combine effectively with skilled labour for maximum productivity to take place. Many entrepreneurs lack management knowledge and as such cannot effectively handle their businesses in order to derive maximum productivity from them. Ghana’s industrial sector is still heavily dependent upon imported technologies and the sector is forced to manage the varied and complex technologies with local who do not have full knowledge of their complexities, proper application, care and maintenance. Some people put in management positions dissipate government funds or company funds meant for rehabilitating roads, renovating school buildings or buying raw materials and equipment are used in buying flashy cars, building mansions and spending lavishly on girl-friends leaving these projects or activities unattended to.
viii. Low level of literacy / High level of illiteracy: There is a low literacy, particularly, adult literacy. There are few schools and educational institutions, thus only a small percentage of the population is able to have even primary education. High rate of illiteracy is the result of people’s low capability to improve on their living conditions by adopting modern methods of production as a means of raising their income levels. There is low saving capacity among illiterate parents because of many children they have which affects their saving capacity for nation building.
ix. Conservative nature of Ghanaians: Many Ghanaian farmers use simple farm implements like hoes and cutlasses and do not want to change their mode of farming by using modern implements and new methods of farming introduced by the extension officers. Many of the researches carried out are not adopted by farmers, and even the simple application of fertilizers cannot be undertaken by most of the farmers since they say that its use affects the taste of their foodstuffs. Many people, especially those in the rural areas harbour the fear that when they save their money at the banks the bank the officials may use their money and will not be able to get it when they need it. As such many people keep their money under the pillows, hide it in a pot or bury it in the bush or in metal trunks or under their beds so that they can use the money anytime they need it. Also traders in the urban centres keep their daily sales in the shop instead of saving their money at the bank. This has the disadvantage of thieves breaking into homes to steal the money or fire destroying the house and every property in it including the money.
x. Inadequate Resources to build a strong nation: Ghana lacks both human and natural resources, technology and capital. Many indigenous industries do not have regular source of raw materials. This may be due to the irregular rainfall pattern which does not allow the regular supply of raw materials like cotton, for the local textile industry. The government has to rely on foreign imports to supplement supply. Many industries operate on a small-scale hence the returns from their business activities are so small that of them cannot save at the banks to qualify them for bank loans. Again, many entrepreneurs lack management knowledge and as such cannot effectively handle their businesses in order to derive maximum productivity from them.
xi. Acts of sabotage by political opponents: Acts of sabotage by political opponents do not create conducive atmosphere for nation building. Some of these acts include coup making, subversion, stealing and destruction of state property. In Ghana, the political opponents on many occasions undertook several acts of sabotage to overthrow the Dr. Kwame Nkrumah’s regime. Dr. Kwame Nkrumah’s political opponents collaborated with the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) of the USA to overthrow his government in 1966.
xii. Lack of long-term development plans: Ghana lacks detailed planning based on reliable statistical information about the economy and projections of future trends. When this statistical information about the economy and projections of future trends are weak and unrealistic, the quality and accuracy of plans greatly diminish. Ghana’s development plans are often over-ambitious trying to accomplish too many objectives at once, with the result that they cannot succeed. Ghana cannot develop realistic development plans because of the nature of plans which could be unrealistic and ambitious and therefore lack finance either from internal sources or donor countries and the supplies of productive inputs such as raw materials, machines, equipment and skilled labour.
4. a. What is family?
b. Highlight four reasons why the extended family system needs to be encouraged in Ghana
a. “Family” refers to a group of people who are related by kinship ties (that is, through marriage, birth) or adoption.
The reasons why extended family system needs to be encouraged in Ghana may be stated as follows:
b. (i) The extended family system serves to regulate allocation and distribution of family property e.g. land to family members: The extended family system apportions family properties like land, money and other items to its numerous family members. A piece of family land may be shared among many people. There is no conflict in the sharing of family property since they all work in hand in the sharing of properties peacefully without the involvement of external body in this. The extended family system therefore ensures the promotion of peaceful land tenure system in Ghana.
(ii) Extended family serves as insurance against difficult times: The extended family provides mutual assistance in times of need or difficulty. Family members provide security for those in financial need. There is always a relative i.e. uncle, aunt, brother, sister or cousin etc. at hand to provide assistance when one needs school fees, textbook, food, school uniform etc.
(iii) The extended family system ensures security to the aged, the sick, the physically handicapped and the orphan within the family: The extended family system creates a situation where adults and the aged are catered for by the younger ones. The aged, poor, orphan, widow/widower are all catered for by the well to do in family. Widows and children do not suffer hardships when other family members are still living.
(iv) Serves as a social control mechanism: The extended family serves as a social control to check wayward members. The moral upbringing of the young ones becomes the responsibility of the extended family. The extended family ensures that family members have good character and also do their best to advise them not to indulge in vices like stealing, fighting etc. which would affect the good name of the family. As a result, family members are taught values such as unity, sharing and hard work. The extended family therefore maintains law and order among the family members through discipline and harmonious living habits. Also, family members are scolded if they offend one another.
(v) Ensures unity and cohesion: The extended family provides an environment in which the individual feels he belongs to a larger and more exclusive group. This means that it brings about togetherness among members of the extended family when they pre bereaved, or there is marriage or there is naming ceremony. When there is a family problem members of the family come together and share ideas to solve it. For example, during funerals or other social engagements, there is a collective responsibility to ensure success by members contributing money and other items needed for the ceremony or occasion.
(vi) Serves as a source of labour: Family members come together to work on the farm of a family member without any financial cost. The “nnoboa” system, which is very common in the rural areas, is a major source of labour for family members who are financially weak to hire labour to work on their farms.
(vii) Socialization: The extended family ensures the affective socialization of children in the family. It is therefore the collective responsibility of the extended family system to socialize the young ones by transmitting norms, values, behavioral patterns etc. to them. As a result, the family members socialize children of deceased members and others in need by teaching them the beliefs, values and social norms of the people. Through transmission of culture of the people, the children become disciplined. Also there is the joy of living together since the extended family members e.g., parents, siblings, uncles, aunts, cousins, nephews, grandparents etc. ensure harmonious co-existence.
(viii) Confers prestige on the, especially, well-to-do members: The extended family confers prestige on its members, particularly when a family member is well to do or respectable one. When an individual is made a Head of family or “Abusuapayin” or belongs to a respected family, that is, a royal family he is easily identified and accorded respect. When a family member belongs to a Royal family, he is accorded respect and this makes him to exhibit good behaviour in the society.
(ix) The extended family system helps to preserve family identity e.g. ancestral names: The extended family ensures that ancestral names like Acheampong, Andzi. Ewusi, Kwenuwah, etc. are passed on from generation to the next. The extended family is made up of several nuclear families joined together so that the death of two or more members in the family does not wipe away the entire family and also the ancestral names.
(x) Helps to prevent and resolve conflicts in a family: The extended family system has the potential to resolve conflicts or misunderstanding among the members of the family. The sources of these conflicts could be traced to jealousy, backbiting, and envy nursed by other members of the family, particularly the less fortunate ones. It is the duty of the family heads, family elders and older family members to maintain law and order in the family. In doing this they settle dispute within the family by solving quarrels among family members to maintain peace and harmony in the family.
5. Explain five ways community leaders can mobilize the people for development.
The following are some of the ways community leaders can mobilize the people for development:
i. Leaders exhibiting foresight or vision: Community leaders can initiate policies and programmes which will benefit the people. If community leaders possess imagination and insight they can initiate policies and find quick solutions to them. This will enable them mobilize the people for development and also introduce innovations that will meet the needs or desires of the people. Community leaders can also mobilize the people for development if the people have trust and confidence in them because they can anticipate the future needs of the community and work towards them.
ii. Planning of community development projects with opinion leaders: Community leaders like assemblymen and women can mobilize the people for development when they seek the ideas, suggestions and contributions from chiefs, elders, queen-mothers, etc. in planning community projects. When this is done the opinion leaders in the community will throw their weight behind any development project that the assembly members initiate with their support and want to introduce into the community. For example, the chief can use his Influence to beat the gong-gong to summon the people to meet for the community project which the community leaders are undertaking.
iii. Leaders displaying democratic style of leadership: A community leader must possess democratic style of leadership to be able to mobilize the people for development. A democratic leader leads and guides his people in whatever projects they undertake. He does not concentrate power and authority only in his hands but shares these with his people. He permits free expression of opinion, suggestions, questions etc. A good leader solicits the views of his/her people and gives them chance to make inputs in decision-making.
iv. Involvement of the youth in planning and decision taking: Community leaders can mobilize the youth by involving them in planning and decision making in the projects that the community needs. This will make the youth show interest in the community project and therefore contribute their quota towards the success of the project. A leader must know when to delegate his orders or plans to the people. Planning of community projects can be started by involving the youth from its initial stage to its completion stage in order to sustain the peoples interest in them. When the youth are involved in the decision making in the community projects, they ensure that all projects initiated are successfully completed. A leader must also know when to involve the people in decision making. This means that the leader must constantly involve the people in the decision making process. A sense of good will prevail if a leader allows his people to take part in the decision that affect them. This will make the people feel that they belong to the community.
v. Identification of priority areas for development: Community leaders can mobilize the people for development when they have the ability to perceive the needs of the people or identify the priority projects and be able to organize them to ensure that the projects are completed.
vi. Encouraging communal labour and self-reliance: Community leaders can mobilize the people for development by employing appropriate techniques to motivate or encourage them to be self-reliant and show interest in communal labour. This will help to achieve the objectives of the leader. Community leaders can also motivate the people through such techniques as praise, rewards, a pat on the shoulder or back, provision of soft drinks, etc. during and after communal labour. When the people are motivated in this way they will be encouraged to take part in clearing choked gutters and weedy areas and also help to build libraries, schools, toilets etc. Community leaders can also encourage the youth to use resources available in their community in undertaking community-initiated projects. The youth can be encouraged to look for financial support from the community to undertake community-initiated projects while relying less on government support.
vii. Fund raising activities: Community leaders can mobilize the people for development by organizing fund raising activities to undertake community projects. Since it is difficult to get enough funds from the government to undertake community projects it is necessary that community leaders encourage the people to donate generously during traditional festivals to support any planned projects for the community. Community leaders must be transparent and honest in handling the accounts or the money realized from the fund raising activities so the people will be committed to donate at future fund raising ceremony.
viii. Judicious use of development levy: Community leaders can mobilize the people for development if there is judicious use of development levy. If development levy such as fines, market tolls, property tax or money levied on the people for a particular project (e.g. to build a toilet) is honesty accounted for in terms of the items purchased or the money used to purchase the items the people will be committed to pay any money levied by community leaders.
ix. Appreciation for the effort through reward system: Community leaders can mobilize the people for development by appreciating the efforts of the people of the community by rewarding them for taking part in communal labour and other community initiated projects like building a toilet, school, clinic, etc. Such a reward system like praise, a pat on the back, certificate of participation in such activities are a moral booster and tend to motivate others who sit on the fence to come on board when such activities are held.
x. Effective and workable implementation of projects: Community leaders can mobilize the people for development if there is effective and workable implantation of projects. This is possible if community leaders can ensure effective supervision of projects and also ensure that quality materials are used in projects such as toilets, clinics, markets, etc. so that they can last longer. Shoddy work should be strongly rejected since they will have a short life-span. Community leaders can also use the skilled personnel among the people e.g. artisans in constructing clinics, toilets, markets, etc.
xi. Promoting good inter-personal relation: Community leaders can establish good inter-personal relation with the people to promote development. Community leaders should therefore ensure that the welfare of the people are met as well as their domestic needs. This will create a happy environment for the people to work assiduously to ensure that community projects are undertaken in a community spirit.
xii. Leadership by example: A community leader acts as a symbol of the people. He provides a kind of cognitive (thinking) focus by acting as the representative of the people. The community leader is therefore a model of behaviour for the people. This means that the community leader can mobilize the people for community development since his punctuality at work, and the seriousness with which he/she attached to work will serve as an example to the people he/she works with to follow.
xiii. Listening to the grievances of the people: A community leader should be a symbol of peace; an arbitrator as well as a mediator. He /she is to use all his/her human relation skills to listen to the grievances of the people and solve conflicts among the people. Through this, the people will co-operate with one another and besides help in community development projects.
xiv. Instilling the spirit of voluntary work among the youth: Community leaders can mobilize the people for development by instilling the spirit of voluntary work among them. This can be by the community leader encouraging and conscientising the people to know the importance of taking in communal work. If the people are made to know that taking part in communal work will help improve the living conditions of the people and also help to reduce the incidence of disease then they will assist to clean the environment and rid the community of filth.
xv. Assigning the youth to responsible positions: Community leaders can assign the youth to responsible positions when undertaking voluntary work and communal labour. The youth can be appointed to take the lead role in ensuring that their colleagues assemble for communal labour or voluntary work. Again, in organizing fund raising activities the youth can plan how the fund raising can be organized. The youth can be divided into groups with their leaders who will be responsible for the organization of the fund raising activities. Some youth members in the committees can be responsible for ensuring that stakeholders and opinion leaders in the community are invited to the fund raising ceremony. Other youths can also be responsible for ensuring that the place for the activity is properly prepared.
6. Examine five obligations of parents to their children.
The obligations of parents to their children are as follows:
i. Provision of the physical needs of the child e.g. food, clothing and shelter: Children are indeed helpless in providing their own physical needs such as food, clothing and shelter. A child who is fed on a balanced diet is likely to have a healthy growth and may not easily fall sick. Any child left to fend for him/herself is very likely to go way ward. Most of the street children we see on our streets find themselves in this category. It is therefore incumbent on parents who have brought them into this world to provide the physical needs of their children. When a child is well fed, clothed and given a better shelter he will grow up into a well-cared-for child.
ii. Provision of health needs: It is the duty of parents to teach their children good health habits such as cleaning their teeth when they get up in the morning, washing their hands before and after eating, washing their hands after visiting the toilet, etc. This will prevent the children from getting diseases like diarrhoea, cholera, etc. It is also the duty of parents to immunize their children against such childhood killer diseases as diphtheria, polio, tetanus, tuberculosis, measles, and whopping cough. Children who have their health needs taken care of by their parents do not often fall sick and can therefore attend school regularly.
iii. Emotional needs: Parents should be a source of love, care and respect, so that the children will feel wanted. Parents must also show affection to their children and not to discriminate since this will make the other children feel unwanted and dejected. Again, parents must ensure that the care and support for all the children are the same so that all the children will feel loved and wanted.
iv. Socialization: As primary social agents, parents are obliged teach and shape the habits, ideas, attitudes and values of their children. Parents teach the children values like hard-work, obedience, respect etc. that are needed to enable them fit well into the society. Parents should also train their children by moulding their character and also inculcating good moral values, good eating habits, etc. Parents should teach their children to respect their elders, behave well and associate freely with their peers in the society.
v. Training: It is the duty of parents to provide occupational and informal training to their children. Parents provide domestic training in such basic skills as childcare, cookery, washing and home management so that children can grow up into responsible adults. It is the duty of parents to ensure that children acquire skills for a meaningful livelihood. Parents are therefore obliged to teach their children the skills of extracting palm oil from palm fruits, making brooms, baskets, sewing, farming, etc. By exposing the child to occupational opportunities he/she can choose the vocation which will suit him or her and which can be his/her life long occupation.
vi. Social Role: Parents serve as role model of appropriate behaviour to their children. Parents are therefore expected to set good example for the children to follow. In this regard, parents are expected to be honest, tolerant, fair, firm and truthful in all their dealings with their children. Parents must not lead wayward life like excessive smoking, drinking and quarrelling which will be a bad example to the children. For example, parents who quarrel of or a father who physically abuses his wife be setting a bad example for the children.
vii. Provision of spiritual needs: As primary agent of socialization, parents are obliged to train and shape the moral values of their children. This role can be performed successfully if parents can instill the fear of God in their children. Parents should take their children to Church or Mosque so that they can learn moral values from the preaching of their priest or malam respectively. Parents can also have morning devotions with their children in the house and let them know the teachings of Jesus Christ or Prophet Mohammed. The biblical stories of personalities like Job, King Solomon. St. Paul, Mary, the mother of Jesus Christ, Mary Magdalene, etc. can be explained to children while helping them to learn the moral values in the stories.
viii. Settlement of disputes among children: It is the duty of parents to maintain law and order at home and among children. Parents can do this by settling disputes and quarrels among their children and ensuring that they respect children themselves. Parents should therefore instill discipline among their children to ensure that there is peace and harmony among them.
ix. Provision of formal education: It is the duty of parents to ensure that their children acquire formal education so that they can be responsible citizens in future. It is therefore necessary that parents provide the educational needs like paying school fees regularly, providing school uniform, textbooks, etc. When these needs are provided they will help to improve on the child’s academic performance in school. Parents must also ensure that children go to school regularly and do their assignments. Again, parents must show interest in their children’s education by attending P.T.A meetings and Open days, which enable the parents to know the performance of their children.
x. Security: Parents should provide security for their children. This involves the need for security and safety from physical harm. This also implies that parents should make sure that their children’s life are not threatened by other people and report any life threatening issues to the police. Parents must, for example, protect their children from bullies, gangs and people with questionable characters who may have the intention of harming or attacking their children. Parents have a duty to advise their children against moving with people they don’t know and who can pose potential threat to their lives. Again, parents should advise their children especially their girl-child to refuse gifts, car lifts from strangers and men they cannot trust and not to enter the rooms of men who can abuse them sexually.
7. (a) What work in the Ghanaian Society?
(b) In what four ways can Ghanaian workers be made more productive?
(a) Work in the Ghanaian society implies any legitimate and socially acceptable act that one performs for a livelihood.
(b) Ghanaian workers can be more productive in the following ways:
i. Education and training: Ghanaian workers can be made more productive through education and training. Workers can improve upon their knowledge and skills through further education either locally or overseas. They could secure study leave to do full time or grant permission to do part time courses. With adequate salaries workers can pursue courses on personal sponsorship. Further studies will thus expose workers to new ideas, skills, experience and in-depth knowledge of their various fields of work, broaden their scope and help increase productivity. On the job training facilities should be provided to help train workers on the job. This could take the form of refresher courses to help keep old workers abreast with new developments and methods of carrying out certain work schedules. Such refresher courses could be seminars, conferences, workshops, lectures, lecturettes and symposia etc. This will not only broaden but also deepen their outlook and understanding of their job specifications.
ii. Conducive work environment: conditions under which a worker works can affect his/her output or efficiency. To make a worker more productive, good ventilation, lighting and sanitation etc. are important. Overcrowding must be avoided since this affects efficiency and health of the worker.
iii. Health Services: The health of the worker is very important since a worker with a weak health cannot be very productive. Improved health facilities are necessary to increase workers efficiency. The provision of better health services is necessary, because a healthy worker would be able to work well whereas an unhealthy worker is likely to fall sick. Employers must therefore cater for the health needs of workers by ensuring that there are clinics at work places or workers hospital bills are borne by employers. When employers cater for the health needs of workers this will enable them have the strength and good health which they need to perform better at their work places.
iv. Provision of welfare services: The worker’s efficiency can be raised if relevant and appropriate incentives like bonuses, housing schemes, rent and transport allowances, canteen facilities are provided for him. For example, a poorly housed worker can hardly give off his best in his job. Transport to and from work and recreational facilities all induce workers to work hard to increase their output.
v. Realistic wages and salaries: High wages and salaries may result in a high standard of efficiency and this has often led employers to offer higher than the standard rates of pay to their employees. Efficiency will be increased if high wages increase the physical welfare of the workers. Higher wages normally induce workers to put in more effort thus increasing productivity while low wages make workers less efficient. Better remuneration of workers will lead to a high standard of living because with the workers enhanced salaries and wages with allied incentives they are now able to meet their daily demands. They can provide themselves with better accommodation, clothing, better health care, children’s education and good food and hence a happy family life.
vi. Worker/Management relations must be cordial: The workers’ efficiency (or productivity) can be raised if they are motivated by their management to boost their morale. Management must have a cordial relationship with their workers. Management must also identify the needs of their workers and satisfy them to reduce apathy and increase their productivity. The exercise of effective management control is, therefore, needed in all establishments. This creates a happy environment for the workers to work assiduously to maximize productivity and hence sustain the business.
vii. Inculcating better work attitudes in workers: Many workers have the wrong attitude to work because they have the impression that additional output or profit only benefits the ‘Government’ and not the workers themselves. To raise productivity workers should be educated to inculcate new attitudes towards work. A worker should be punctual, regular, highly committed to his work. He should have respect for time and report early for work. He should not leave his work unattended to and walk aimlessly about. A worker with a high sense of duty shows concern, care and compassion in dealing with the business public. Goods and services are delivered on time to customers and with maximum amount of care.
viii. Effective supervision: Effective supervision can be exacted from effective leadership. The supervisor must make sure that the workers he supervises do not exhibit negative attitudes such as laziness, absenteeism, lateness to work at the work place, but exhibit positive work ethics such as punctuality, hard work, loyalty and commitment to ensure higher productivity. Supervisors can build confidence in the workers when he is fair and firm in his dealings with them. Supervisors can also establish good rapport among workers by relating favourably and closely with them, and also by discussing personal issues with them and solving personal problem.
ix. Provision of adequate and appropriate tools: The provision of adequate and appropriate tools with which labour has to work with is an important determinant of labour’s productivity or the greater will be the productivity of labour. The right type of tools, machinery, and equipment should be provided in all factories and in sufficient quantities to increase labour power of productivity. Also the fertility of the land, type of machines and equipment used in production are factors, which affect the productivity of labour. For example, a worker who uses a tractor to farm will clear a bigger area than another worker who uses a cutlass.
x. Adoption of modern technology: Workers can be made more productive if they adopt and use modem machines like robots, computers, fax machines and computerized machines and equipment to maximize productivity. For example, a worker who uses computer in his/her office will be able to do more work than another worker who uses the manual typewriter to work in his/her office. Again, a farmer who plants his maize in rows will be able to harvest more maize than another farmer who adopts the old technology of planting maize with a stick and not in rows.
xi. Workers in Decision-making: Decisions taken by employers or management should not be imposed on workers. They should be part of the decision making process of the organisation since their well-being future are tied to the survival of the organisation. When workers are allowed in determining the working process of the organisation, they become committed to the work they are assigned to do. This is because the success or failure of the business will rest on them and to avoid this they will work harder.
xii. Elimination of bureaucratic bottlenecks: Workers can be more productive at the work place if the rules and regulations are modified and the complicated official routine can be simplified to exact high productivity from workers. Bureaucracy makes simple jobs take a long time than normal to complete. This is because the worker has to go through the laid down principle in performing his job. The result is that a lot of man-hours are lost or wasted through long delays, which decreases output. This long process can be eliminated if the process of performing work in restructured to do away with delays in official channel of doing work. This is very common with public corporation.
8. a. What constitute the secondary sector of Ghana’s economy?
b. Describe four measures the government of Ghana is taking to promote the development of the secondary sector.
a. The secondary sector of Ghana’s economy is the manufacturing aspect of the economy that uses raw materials and intermediate products to produce final goods or other intermediate products. Industries such as motor assembly, textiles and building or construction are part of this sector.
The secondary sector consists of manufacturing, mineral production, production of utilities etc. (electricity and watery) and indigenous industries and construction.
b. Some of the measures the government is taking to promote the development of the secondary sector include:
i. Improvement of road transport: The government of Ghana is improving the feeder roads in the rural areas where most agricultural products are produced. Such improvement will induce farmers to step up production of raw materials such as cocoa, timber, palm oil, citrus, foodstuff, etc. needed by the secondary sector. Good roads in the rural areas will help to reduce the transport cost and prices of products carted from the rural areas en-route to the marketing centres. Since the implementation of the Transport Rehabilitation Project and the Cocoa Rehabilitation Project, the Feeder Road sub-sector has seen a great deal of improvement. The improvement of road transport to rural areas by the government will facilitate evacuation of raw materials to the marketing centres so that the manufacturing industries can have regular source of raw materials.
ii. Establishment of National Board for Small Scale Industries (NBSSI) to advise small Scale industries: The NBSSI has been pursuing an entrepreneurship programme, which offers assistance and advice to business as well as developing existing enterprise. The Business Advisory Centres at Cape Coast and Kumasi have been organizing entrepreneurship awareness seminars for a number of young entrepreneurs to kindle in them the need for setting up their own businesses.
iii. Creation of Free Industrial Zones: The government of Ghana is creating Free Industrial Zones where land acquisition is easy and basic utilities are provided. These Free Industrial Zones are usually provided with infrastructural facilities like good roads, railways, water, electricity, and efficient postal and telecommunication systems. These facilities go a long way in cutting down the heavy initial cost incurred by investors. Again, the government is making efforts at creating industrial zones at all the regional and district capitals to encourage private and foreign investors to invest in these areas.
iv. Sale of state enterprises that are not viable to private individuals: State enterprises such as the State Fishing Corporation, the State Transport Corporation, the Ghana Trading Corporation, the Ashanti Goldfields Corporation etc. were sold by the government to enable her raise revenue to provide facilities of urgent interest, such as roads, schools, hospitals, etc. Apart from cash proceeds of the sale of these public enterprises, government will continue to earn a higher income from them in the form of taxes. The income tax will be higher than if they were under the government because profit levels are also expected to be high.
v. Liberalized tax regimes for industrialists: The government tax measures are also helping to promote industrial development in my country. The government of my country has reduced the amount of company income tax payable every year. Sometimes the government gives some companies tax holiday for five or more years during which such companies will not pay tax. Furthermore, the government has reduced custom duties on imported raw materials. All these measures reduce cost and increase profits and also enable companies to re-invest their profits to expand production.
vi. Joint ventures between state and private individuals e.g. VALCO: The Government of Ghana has entered into direct partnership with foreign firms to establish industries such as VALCO. This is a joint venture between government and foreign investors. In this way, foreign investors are assured of the safety of their investment. At the same time, government partnership may bring about the provision of more funds and assistance from the government. The former Aboso Glass Factory in the Western Region, now the Tropical Glass Factory has been divested on a 20 year lease basis to foreign private businessman who took 85% of the shares with the government of Ghana taking 15% shares.
vii. Loans to small scale manufacturers e.g. rural /cottage industries and crafts: The government has established the National Investment Bank to provide loans for industrial development. The Agric Development Bank (ADB) has increased its support through advances to the timber industries for the development of saw mill furniture making and wood processing and its timber export programmes. The government is ensuring that loans are given to rural/cottage industries such as palm oil processing, gari processing etc. and craft industries like dying, kente weaving, leatherwork. pottery, calabash carving.
viii. Skill training for small scale industrialists: The government of Ghana is promoting skill training for small scale industrialists in collaboration with other bodies e.g. UNDP, National Productivity Institute and GIMPA. These institutions afford the small scale industrialists the opportunity for acquiring technical skills. Industrial centres such as Suame Magazine in Kumasi and Kokompe and Odawnna in Accra enable craftsman acquire skills mostly through apprenticeship to master craftsman. Their production activities cover such areas as foundry operation, building of vehicles and bus bodies, manufacturing of storage tanks and building of trucks trailers.
ix. Supporting the primary sector to produce more raw materials: The secondary sector (i.e. the manufactory industry) supplies agricultural inputs like cutlasses, hoes, hand corn shellers, corn mills, seed cleaner, etc. for the agricultural sector. The Bibiani Metal Company produces simple farm implements such as hoes, cutlasses, for the agricultural sector. Again, many manufacturing companies provide a source of ready market for agricultural products. Uniliver Ghana Ltd. buys local palm oil to produce key soap, edible oil like frytol and palmin which are popular on the Ghanaian market. Astek fruit Processing Company Ltd. depends on local fruits such as pineapple, mango and orange to produce fruity, pure juice and the Refresh range (Orapine, pineapple, and orange).
9. (a) What is a limited liability company?
(b) Discuss four advantages of sole proprietorship in Ghana.
(a) A Iimited liability company is a form of business in which in the event of the company incurring debts the individual shareholders personal assets or properties will not be affected.
The advantages of sole proprietorship in Ghana can be stated as follows:
(b) 1. Needs little capital to establish therefore easy to form: The sole proprietorship in Ghana requires very little capital and legal formalities and therefore it is easy to set up and organise it. For example, a sole proprietor can establish this form of business with very little capital which may be raised from borrowing or from personal savings or from inheritance. Again no formal procedures are required to set up a sole proprietorship.
2. The ownership and effective control of business is ensured since it is owned by one person: Since the ownership and effective control of business is vested in one person and so he has a great incentive to run the business efficiently. The sole proprietor therefore decides the policy of the business, enjoys the gains, which come from sound policy making. He thus has a direct personal interest in the efficiency of the business.
3. Decision taking is fast since the owner does not consult anybody: Having no one or colleagues to consult, the sole proprietor can put his plans into effect quickly. No time is wasted in referring problems back along the chain of command or in long discussions to arrive at an agreed solution. The sole trader can therefore be very flexible because he can take quick decisions as to what to suit the conditions of the time.
4. Effective Supervision ensures efficiency: The sole proprietor is most of the time with his employees and this ensures effective supervision at all times. There is more personal relationship between the proprietor and his employees (if any) since the proprietor is most of the time with his employees and can personally discuss their problems with them and give a quick solution to such problems.
5. Pay personal attention to customers: Customers are known to the proprietor and therefore he can cater for their special tastes and needs. The personal contact the sole proprietor has with his customers enables him to satisfy them thereby creating good will.
6. Privacy is maintained to ensure customer’s/proprietor’s/owner’s satisfaction: He can keep his business affairs private. He does not have to publish his accounts. The sole proprietor alone knows the details and plans of his business and he may keep them as secret from his competitors.
7. Does not share profits with anyone: The sole/proprietor has the incentive to work hard because if the business proves successful all profits go to him alone. He does not share profit with anyone, he enjoys it alone.
8. Easy to terminate: The business is easy to terminate or stop if the owner thinks the business is no longer profitable. The sole proprietor, therefore, can quit his business easily by changing to another profitable business.
9. There is personal interest, hence efficient operation of the business: Since the business belongs to the sole proprietor, he has the greatest encouragement and the spirit of self-interest to operate the business efficiently and with much dedication. The personal interest of the sole proprietor can be seen from the way he exercises firm control, or the running of the business.
10. Enjoys flexible working hours: The sole proprietorship in Ghana goes to work at his own convenience and has no closing time. He is prepared to serve his customers at odd times even when he has closed from work. He does not break for holidays since the survival of the business rests on him.